by erin stewart sm (513 of 22)

How to Make Salves with Herbs and Essential Oils

Herbal salves are a traditional topical remedy made with beeswax and carrier oil. The beeswax helps to solidify the product while keeping it easy to apply to the skin and helping to sustain its shelf life.

Salves are used to address all kinds of skin ailments and muscle and joint aches and pains. Sometimes salves are called balms or ointments, but the definitions of these words tend to vary based on who you’re talking to and usually refer to differences in consistency. What all three preparations have in common is that they’re made with beeswax and carrier oil. Salves, by definition, don’t contain butters or water-based ingredients.

Tip: If you’re practicing a vegan lifestyle, you can also use plant-based waxes like candelilla in place of the beeswax when making salves.

What You Need to Make a Salve

Carrier oil

Olive oil is traditionally used by herbalists for salve formulation because it generally has a pretty long shelf life. I, however, tend to prefer sunflower seed oil because it is a bit lighter in consistency and feels better on the skin. Carrier oils each carry their own therapeutic benefits as well, so you can add to the overall effect of your blend by choosing a carrier oil that matches well with the goal of your recipe.
Regardless of which carrier oil you choose to use, I recommend using an herb-infused oil as your carrier oil rather than a plain carrier. Double and triple infused carriers are especially well suited to salves, increasing their overall efficacy.

Beeswax or solid plant wax (Jojoba will not work because it is a liquid wax.)

Beeswax is added to salves at a 1:4, 1:5, or 1:6 ratio to help solidify the salve so it can cool to a nice consistency. The ratios further explained would be 1part beeswax to 4 parts carrier oil (1:4), 1 part beeswax to 5 parts carrier oil (1:5), or 1 part beeswax to 6 parts carrier oil (1:6).

1:4 is the traditional ratio for salves, but I find that it’s a bit hard for my liking at that ratio. I tend to make my own salves at a 1:6 ratio. Experiment with small batches of each ratio to see what you prefer and then you’ll know to always use your preferred ratio when you make your own salves.

In the photos below, the salve on the left is a 1:4, the middle salve is 1:5 and the salve on the right is 1:6. (The last couple photos show their consistencies on a popsicle stick and on my fingers.) All three salves are made only with organic extra virgin olive oil (not infused with anything) and beeswax.

Tins or glass jars

Tins are traditional for salves because they tend to have a wide bottom and short walls, which allows the salve to cool evenly. You can also use glass jars if you don’t have any tins on hand. You’ll want to avoid plastic containers. I’ve had previous students and readers share stories about melted plastic and completely wasted batches of salve that were ruined by it. I like 2 to 4 ounce tins for most salves and 1 ounce tins for things like lip salves / balms.

Essential oils (optional)

Essential oils can also be added to your salves to add therapeutic effects. Because salves are not usually daily use products (they are most often formulated as short-term use products for acute situations), your dilution rates can be anywhere between 2 – 10% for most salve applications. Daily use salves should be limited to a dilution rate of 2-3% essential oil. Salves meant for use in acute situations (not daily or regular use) can include dilutions of 3-10%, depending on the purpose of the salve.

Double boiler

I like to use a small pot combined with a glass pyrex measuring cup because it makes for easy pouring. I learned this method from one of my teachers, Andrea Butje, when I completed her certification program several years ago and I’ve found that it’s one of the easiest ways to use the double boiler method. You could also use a traditional double boiler made of stainless steel to melt your beeswax.

Paper towels

While I don’t usually recommend single-use products, paper towels make the cleanup process so much easier and faster when working with beeswax. I keep some on hand specifically for cleaning up dishes I’ve used to make products that contain beeswax.

How to Make a Salve

  • Weigh out your beeswax first and get it into the glass jar in your double boiler over low heat to start melting. While it melts, you can measure out your carrier oil(s) and prepare your tins or jars.
  • When the beeswax is melted, turn the heat off and slowly pour in your carrier oil(s), stirring all the while. The carrier oil will be a cooler temperature than the beeswax, so you may see some small particles starting to solidify. This is normal. Just keep stirring and they will melt back down.
  • Once everything looks smooth and liquid, remove the glass measuring cup from the double boiler and set it on a pot holder or trivet. Add your essential oils to the blend, stirring to thoroughly combine.
  • Pour the finished salve recipe into your tins or jars and allow them to sit still until the salve has completely cooled.
  • Label your packaging with all ingredients, the name of your product, the expiration date of your carrier oil, and the date you made the product.

Salves will generally last as long as the expiration date on your carrier oil, if not longer. You can add a bit of liquid vitamin E to your salve if you want to slow oxidation of the fatty oils but do keep in mind that vitamin E is not a preservative; it is an antioxidant. Since salves do not contain any water-based ingredients, you do not technically need a preservative. If you do choose to include vitamin E as an antioxidant, you’ll also want to source it carefully since much of the vitamin E on the market is derived from genetically modified crops.

What Salves Can Be Used For:

  • Skin issues
  • Rashes
  • Burns (after the initial hot / burning feeling has passed)
  • Splinters
  • Dry skin
  • First aid preparations
  • Muscle aches and pains
  • Aromatic chest rubs
  • Stretch marks (preventive measure)
  • Sore nipples (for nursing mamas – just leave out the essential oil)
  • Dry cuticles
  • To help support restful sleep (apply before bed)
  • Hair products (very small amounts; especially suited to men’s facial hair)

When Not to Use a Salve:

  • In the acute stages of a burn when there is still a sensation of heat or burning.
  • Over puncture wounds
  • On broken skin that hasn’t been properly cleaned
  • Large wounds
  • Animal bites

In these instances, it may be better to clean the area and then apply straight raw honey or an herbal wash. Products containing waxes or fatty oils can seal bacteria into the wound and contribute to infections.

Tip: To make salves lighter and a bit more balmy, you can use a fork, whisk, or immersion blender to whip them up a bit after they’ve started to solidify a bit.

What ratio of beeswax:carrier oil do you prefer to use in your salves? Let me know in the comments below.

Much love,

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Erin Stewart is an herbalist, NAHA certified aromatherapist, organic gardener and urban homesteader. She grows over 150 kinds of aromatic and medicinal plants for her own apothecary and distills essential oils and hydrosols in her PNW garden. Erin is the founder of Floranella and of AromaCulture’s herbalism + aromatherapy magazine.

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22 thoughts on “How to Make Salves with Herbs and Essential Oils”

  1. Hello Erin !

    thanks for this beautiful article — and pictures !!

    Say, why no application on animal bites ( like moskitos .. ) ?
    Is it for the same reason as the HEAT ( temperature, fever, sunburn..) that we do not want to keep in the body by applying a greasy product ? So the acute inflamation symptom would be consider as some heat ?

    1. Erin Stewart

      I would categorize mosquitoes under insects and salves can definitely be used on insect bites. When I say animal bites, I’m referring more to something like a dog bite – something you wouldn’t want to cover up with a salve right away because it needs to be very thoroughly cleaned and watched to prevent infection (they’re usually more puncture-like). A salve could be used in later stages of recovery, but you wouldn’t want to use one for the first few days at least.

  2. This post is very well written. I’ve seen blog posts about making salves and they weren’t clear on what they could or could not be used on. I just made a pain salve on Sunday and used a 1:5 ratio. I’ve tried a 1:4 ratio before and I felt it was too hard and it wasn’t pleasant to use. Thanks for another great post.

    1. Erin Stewart

      I feel the same way about 1:4 salves. They’re just a little too much work to apply. 1:5 works very well, though.

      1. Erin Stewart

        Thank you, Liz! Yes, I do. I was a professional photographer before I transitioned to a plant-based career, so photography is one of the aspects of my business that I really love. =)

  3. Thank you so much for sharing this! I’ve been looking everywhere for a softer salve ratio. This looks perfect! Great info also on usage.

  4. Rene L. Hinds

    Hi Erin,
    Thanks for a most informative post. I have always had trouble with salves: They come out so hard! I will try using your 1:6 approach and see how it works. Do you have any favorite recipes you can share and stories about how they worked? Thanks!

  5. Hi Erin,

    When I make a salve and I’m about to pour the essential oils, I always ask myself if it’s ok to include the oils in the hot melted mixture. I try to wait for the mixture to cool down a bit, but you can’t wait too long, otherwise the salve start to solidify, so when I pour the EO it’s still pretty hot. Do you know if the high temperature, in this case, can change the essential oils’ structure or affect any of their therapeutical properties? It shouldn’t, I guess, since they are obtained by (hot) steam distillation, right?
    Thank you very much for all the great information you share with us, I’m a big fan of Floranella.

    1. Erin Stewart

      The main concern when adding essential oils to something like a salve that can’t be cool when adding the oils is adding them while the mixture is still on the heat source.
      Because essential oils are volatile molecules, too much exposure to heat could cause some of them to evaporate, especially in water-based solutions (think of a drop of essential oil rising on steam). With salves, though, we are adding the oils to a fat-based carrier and the volatile oils are fat-soluble. That, combined with adding them after the mixture has been removed from the heat, helps to prevent their rising out of solution.

    1. Erin Stewart

      You know, I’m not sure. I haven’t used a microwave in at least 10 years, so I’ve never tried it.

  6. Pingback: How to Make (and Customize) Your Own Trauma Oil – Floranella

  7. Bob Foster

    Thank you for this very informative post. I have a question, when using essential oils, does the dilution ratio apply to all oils as a whole or each oil. I am making an Salve for my mother in her 80’s who has cancer and do not want to over do it. There are 4 different oils I am using, would that apply to each or the combination of all four? ie 12 drops of ES each per ounce or 3 drops of ES each per ounce for a total of 12. Hope that makes sense.

    Thank you

    1. Erin Stewart

      The dilution rate is usually shown for all of the essential oils combined, so if you wanted a 2% dilution, you would use 12 total drops of essential oil (3 of each of the 4 oils) per ounce of carrier. Some essential oils have lower recommended dilution rates, which is why dilutions are sometimes written differently.

  8. kevin beaumont

    Hi, Great work. Very nice information. I recently got a nice rash and tried everything with little result. I remembered I made some salve, mostly pure beeswax and a bunch of herbs from the yard (very little oil). It looks good and has no foul smell even though it is like 10 years old. Been stored in a mason jar in the back of a closet. Can it still be safe to use. A little worried about potential bacterial growth (but again no signs of that). Guess i will find out tomorrow as i used some alreadt–hope I wake up!
    Thanks for any info. Peace.

    1. Erin Stewart

      It sounds like it was a high beeswax salve without much oil, so I would guess that it’s okay if it doesn’t smell off. Normally with salves, we try to use them up within a year or two – the expiration date of the oil is the expiration date of the salve. Beeswax in itself doesn’t really spoil, though, and can act as a sort of preservative, so it might be fine if you had very little oil in the blend. Possibly reduced potency since it’s been sitting for awhile.

  9. Laura McRae

    Hi there! Exactly the type of information I was looking for! I was wondering what you would recommend for jewelweed? I’m concerned that if I infuse it fresh into oil, it will start to mold as it’s introducing moisture…but jewelweed loses its properties once it’s dried.

    Do you have any recommendations?


    1. Erin Stewart

      Hi Laura,

      I would recommend that you juice the fresh plants and freeze the juice in ice cube trays, then store the cubes in the freezer for when you need them.

      Much love,

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